First, two graphics from the National Snow and Ice Data Center:
And the findings, from the Center’s report:
June set another satellite-era record low for average sea ice extent, despite slower than average rates of ice loss. The slow rate of ice loss reflects the prevailing atmospheric pattern, with low pressure centered over the central Arctic Ocean and lower than average temperatures over the Beaufort Sea.
Arctic sea ice extent during June 2016 averaged 10.60 million square kilometers (4.09 million square miles), the lowest in the satellite record for the month. So far, March is the only month in 2016 that has not set a new record low for Arctic-wide sea ice extent (March 2016 was second lowest, just above 2015). June extent was 260,000 square kilometers (100,000 square miles) below the previous record set in 2010, and 1.36 million square kilometers (525,000 square miles) below the 1981 to 2010 long-term average.
Sea ice extent remains below average in the Kara and Barents seas, as it has throughout the winter and spring. Despite lower than average temperatures over the Beaufort Sea, sea ice extent there remains below average, and was the second lowest extent for the month of June during the satellite data record.
The average rate of ice loss during June 2016 was 56,900 square kilometers (22,000 square miles) per day, but was marked by two distinct regimes. First, there was a period of slow loss during June 4 to 14 of only 37,000 square kilometers (14,000 square miles) per day. This was followed by above average rates (74,000 square kilometers, or 29,000 square miles) for the rest of the month. For the month as a whole, the rate of loss was close to average (53,600 square kilometers per day). The slow ice loss during early June was a result of a significant change in the atmospheric circulation. May was characterized by high surface pressure over the Arctic Ocean, a basic pattern that has held since the beginning of the year. However, June saw a marked shift to low pressure over the central Arctic Ocean. This type of pattern is known to inhibit ice loss. A low pressure pattern is associated with more cloud cover, limiting the input of solar energy to the surface, as well as generally below average air temperatures. However, in June 2016, it was only in the Beaufort Sea where air temperatures at the 925 hPa level were distinctly below average (about 2° Celsius below average, or 4° Fahrenheit). The change in circulation also shifted the pattern of ice motion. In general, winds associated with such a low pressure pattern will tend to spread the ice out (that is, cause the ice to diverge).