April 20, 1914: The bloody Ludlow Massacre


The latter half of our childhood was spent in Colorado, where today marks the anniversary of the Ludlow Massacre, one of the bloodiest assaults on organized labor in American history, when company goons from John D. Rockefeller’s Colorado Fuel and Iron and troops from the National Guard opened fire on striking coal miners in Ludlow, killing two dozen in the tent camp erected by striking miners and their families.

Thirteen of the dead were children, most burned to death in the ensuing fires.

In this brief video, Anton Woronczuk of The Real News Network talks about the bloodshed with author Jeff Biggers and Colorado State University-Pueblo historian Jonathan Rees:

From The Real News Network:

Hundredth Anniversary of the Ludlow Massacre

From the transcript:

REES: Well, the Ludlow massacre was the culminating event of the Colorado coalfield war of 1913-1914. There’d been small-scale violence on both sides throughout Southern Colorado in the days and months leading up to April 20, but on April 20 there were some stray explosions, and as a result a gunfight broke out between the Colorado National Guard and the striking miners.

When that happened, a lot of the people fled the tent colony, but not all of them, and the Colorado National Guard set fire to the tent colony, trapping 11 children and two women in a pit under one of the tents. They suffocated. There were also a few murders of strike leaders who were trying to broker a peace.

But once the massacre was over, you got the infamous ten-day war, when the coal miners decided they would strike back against the people who had killed their colleagues and their women and children, and literally the miners managed to take over most of southern Colorado from everywhere just south of Denver all the way down to the New Mexico line. It’s really an extraordinary event in American labor history. The miners did very well in the days afterwards, inspired by the horrible violence of April 20.

WORONCZUK: And what impact did the Ludlow massacre, as well as the Colorado Cold War, have on the labor movement and labor laws in the country?

REES: I think of the Ludlow massacre as being something that draws an enormous attention to just how difficult the conditions that miners face are. But really it’s one of a series of very bad losses for the labor movement in the late 19th and early 20th century. You could take it back to the Great Railway Strike of 1877, continue on to Blair Mountain. And without those losses, without those sacrifices, I don’t think you would have had the labor reforms of the 1930s that are the bedrock of [incompr.] today.

Woody Guthrie remembers the Ludlow Massacre in this venerable ballad:

Woody Guthrie: The Ludlow Mssacre

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